Site selection is very important in aquaculture as this can often decide the success or failure of the culture. The following list of things need to be checked while selecting the site for shrimp pond:
- Water should be available from water sources throughout the culture period.
- A good quality water source should be preferred. The water source could be creeks, canals, lagoons or backwaters, and groundwater.
- The water source should be free from industrial and agricultural pollution.
- We have to prefer the gravity flow of the water site that facilitates easy pond bottom drying and proper water exchange.
- Transport facilities (road facility)
- Electricity facility
- Minimum 20 -50 m distance from nearby farms
- Don’t select the site near agricultural lands.
- The site should be easily accessible to hatcheries, labs, and processing plants.
- The site should be free from social problems.
How to select the type of soil?
- Generally Prefer clayey or clayey loam soils.
- Avoid sandy soils, due to their porous nature it may lead to erosion and seepage.
- Avoid too clay soil, because it leaches the nutrients.
What are all parameters to check?
Before going to construct the pond, soil and water parameters should be checked. Soil samples are to be collected randomly at 5-10 places at a 1-meter depth of the land.
Important parameters to check in soil sample are:
|Soil texture||Clay or clayey loam soil|
|CaCo3 (%)||> 5.0|
|Available nitrogen (mg/100 g soil)||50-75|
|Available phosphorus (mg/100 g soil)||4-6|
|Electrical conductivity (ds/m)||>4|
How to check the water quality?
Water samples are to be collected from the water source without air bubbles. Important parameters to check in water sample are:
|Alkalinity||> 80 ppm|
|Total suspended solids||< 100 ppm|
|Secchi disc transparency||25-45 cm|
|Chemical oxygen demand||<70 ppm|
|Biochemical oxygen demands||<10 ppm|