Water quality management is basically the management of water quality parameters daily to keep it in optimal conditions for growth of shrimp. This is very important to prevent the shrimp experience stress that can accelerate the shrimp to various diseases.
The water parameters that should be monitored routinely in ponds during culture period are temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency.
- The pH should be in optimum level of 7.5 to 8.5 and should not vary more than 0.5 in a day.
- Variations in salinity not exceeding 5 ppt in a day will help in reducing stress on the shrimp.
- The optimum range of transparency is 25-35 cm. Transparency can be measured using secchi disc
- The un-ionized form of ammonia nitrogen should be less than 0.1 ppm.
- Any detectable concentration of hydrogen sulphide is considered undesirable.
- Periodical water exchange as and when required will help in maintaining the water quality in optimal range. The use of aerators results in mixing of water at surface and bottom and breakdowns the DO and thermal stratification.
- Use of inputs without proven efficiency should be strictly avoided.
- The discharge water from the shrimp ponds has to be allowed into a treatment system pond before letting it into the environment so that the suspended solids may settle at the bottom.
Controlling water quality is one of the main guidelines for making shrimp farming a profitable business as it has the potential to be.
For this, parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and level of toxic substances, among others, must be constantly monitored and, if it is proved that they are outside the allowed range, corrective actions must be taken.
Keeping water clean and with all parameters within the normal range is an essential step in shrimp farming that will have rapid growth and healthy development.